CARACAS/MARACAIBO - Venezuela's opposition began a signature drive on Wednesday seeking a referendum to remove President Nicolas Maduro as sporadic looting and protests over the economic crisis were reported.
The Democratic Unity coalition was holding events in squares around the country to start collecting the 1 percent of voters' signatures, nearly 200,000, needed to trigger the next phase toward a possible recall referendum.
Maduro, 53, who succeeded his late mentor Hugo Chavez, has seen his popularity plummet due to a brutal recession, triple-digit inflation, widespread shortages and long lines at shops.
Small anti-Maduro protests and looting incidents have been taking place in various cities around Venezuela this week, some triggered by increasing power cuts due to energy shortages.
In Venezuela's second city Maracaibo, in the oil-producing western state of Zulia, authorities reported at least 30 small protests on Tuesday night, including looting of various shops and pharmacies and some vehicles burned.
"We totally condemn the violence and aggression," Zulia governor Francisco Arias said, calling on parents to control protesting youths.
Small demonstrations in other cities, including Puerto Ordaz and Maracay, took place early on Wednesday, witnesses said, with people burning garbage in the street and some looting.
If the referendum process drags into 2017, then the vice president would take over should Maduro be removed, rather than there being a new election. Opponents fear the election board is abetting that, to deny them a chance of taking power in the OPEC nation at the half-way stage of Maduro's 2013-2019 term.
Venezuela's opposition won control of the National Assembly in December, due to public ire over the economy, and has declared its aim to remove Maduro this year.
Hundreds of activists were on the streets on Wednesday for the petition campaign.
"We will not rest until we have the recall referendum to get rid of this tragedy," the opposition's assembly leader Henry Ramos told supporters at one event, accusing the government of "terrorizing" state workers not to sign.
To trigger a referendum, after obtaining the 1 percent of voters' signatures, the opposition must then collect another 20 percent, or 4 million signatures, before a vote could be held.
Maduro has sworn he will not be forced out, and has accused he opposition of seeking a coup against him.
Risk consultancy Eurasia forecast authorities would successfully prevent a referendum happening this year.